What are pimples?
Pigmentation of the skin is a current skin topic that many people want to know more about. We asked prominent dermatologist Dr Esther Hong to explain what skin pigmentation is and what to do about it. Dr Hong has 8 years of experience working in clinical and research dermatology across New South Wales and currently consults at St George Dermatology and Royal North Shore Hospital.
Pigmentation occurs by production of melanin (a type of skin protein) by melanocytes (a specialised type of cell in the skin). Melanin is then deposited in the top layers of the skin and is responsible for our skin colour.
Melanocytes numbers are the same for each racial group, but the amount of melanin produced by the melanocytes differs in each person. Darker skin tends to produce more melanin, while fair skin produces less.
Hyperpigmentation often refers to a secondary process of skin darkening due to injury to the skin, as in post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. In these cases, injury to the skin such as an oven burn or insect bite can activate melanocytes to produce increased amounts of melanin.
Melasma is a type of hyperpigmentation affected by exposure to UV radiation. It also occurs through a combination of other factors including genetics and hormones.
Hyperpigmentation may be classified by cause (e.g. hormonal, post-inflammatory, drug-induced), and type of hyperpigmentation – for example, epidermal (where the pigmentation is superficial) and dermal (where pigmentation is deeper). Dermal hyperpigmentation can appear as grey/blue tones and is often harder to treat.
Hormones of pregnancy, mainly oestrogen, can activate melanocytes and cause darkening of skin. “Mask of pregnancy” refers to facial hyperpigmentation or melisma. Linea nigra (dark line down the centre of the lower abdomen) is a type of hormonal hyperpigmentation seen during pregnancy.
No, but strict sun protection helps prevent worsening of pigmentation and so does avoiding other potential sensitizers (medications, perfumes and fragrances etc)
Hormonal skin pigmentation usually fades within a few months after giving birth.
Sun protection is very important! But due to pregnancy, you have to be careful when using certain products. In this sense, it’s best to always consult with a doctor before using any products.
Prevention is key! Sun protection with 50+ sunscreen and a wide brimmed hat helps greatly. Treatment using a combination of creams that incorporate ingredients that help fade and stop formation of new pigmentation. Products containing hydroquinone, kojic acid, soybean extracts, vitamin C and azelaic acid. Combining fruit acid (AHA) peels can help remove existing pigment. Stubborn cases may need review by a dermatologist who can recommend the best approach. Laser treatment can also play a role in some cases.
Talk to your skin specialist about the best products and treatment for you.
What are pimples?
I have recently had an actinic keratosis removed and am now desperately want to get my skin protection right…any advice please?
What is the best treatment for sunburn?
How does your pore get blackheads
How do I use baby bath oil, baby gentle wash and moisturiser together for a baby’s bath?
What is causing peeling and extreme itch palms of my hands only?
How often can flare up bath oil be used?
Do your products contain microbeads?